Volume I : History and Philosophy

Pages: 876 | Chapters: 17

Key Subjects

  • History and development of Homoeopathy
  • Works of Samuel Hahnemann and the early homoeopaths
  • Commentary on Organon
  • Principles of Homoeopathy
  • Images and cases from Hahnemann’s casebooks

Volume I : History and Philosophy is a comprehensive foundation study which supplies the background necessary to understand homoeopathic principles and clinical practice. The text provides an integrated commentary on the Introduction and first 71 Aphorisms of the 6th Organon which reveals many lost teachings and hidden gems of Hahnemann’s work. Volume I was written with the aim of providing practitioners with a thorough education in all important aspects of Homoeopathy and the flexibility to respond to a wide variety of clinical situations.

Homoeopathy is the outcome of a Vitalist philosophy of medicine that has its roots in ancient India, Egypt and Greece. Our historical review begins with Pythagoras, Hippocrates and the Greek naturalists and follows the history of the healing arts up to the time of Samuel Hahnemann. The story continues with a study of Hahnemann’s development of the homoeopathic system. The commentary gives an insightful view into his bio-medical model and its numerous range of practical applications.

Part 1 : The Foundation presents a detailed account of Hahnemann’s medical practice from his first works in the 1790s to his final cases in Paris in 1843. This assessment draws on the six editions of the Organon, biographies, letters and the Founder’s casebooks. The historical approach provides an understanding of the evolution of Hahnemann’s philosophy and clinical methods and removes many misunderstandings about the nature of his work in different periods.

Part 2 : Homoeopathic Philosophy discusses the most important principles of Homoeopathy. Subjects include the homoeopathic Decalogue, Hahnemann’s biomedical model, the vitalist paradigm, the laws of natural healing, acute and chronic diseases and epedemiology.

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Volume I — History and Philosophy uses the history of medicine in general, and of Homœopathy in particular, to supply the background necessary to understand homœopathic philosophy and clinical practice. This work acts as a detailed commentary on the Introduction and first 71 aphorisms of the 6th Organon, which set the stage for the following aphorisms. I believe the study of medical history and its related fields of philosophy are essential to being a true healing artist. It is important for healers to understand the seeds, roots and branches of their profession so they can see the bigger picture. That is why Samuel Hahnemann begins the Organon of the Healing Art with a review of medical history brought up to date for his times. Through a thorough study of history one comes to know what should be preserved and developed from what should be rejected and left behind.

Homœopathy did not develop in isolation. It is the outcome of a vitalist philosophy that has its roots in ancient India, Egypt and Greece, and reached its zenith in the West with the teachings of Pythagoras, Hippocrates and the Greek naturalists. They taught that sickness was caused by natural phenomena not occult forces and could be healed by natural medicine. The source of disease was a matter of inherited predispositions, acquired diseases, wrong living and environmental influences. This is the prime reason Hippocrates is called the Father of western medicine. He developed a clinical system based on observation of causes, symptoms and circumstances. He had the greatest respect for Physis, the natural healing power of nature, and he avoided any harmful treatment that might weaken vitality. For this reason, he used single remedies in small doses, and made corrections in life style and hygiene.

After reviewing the Golden Age of Greece our study follows the development of the healing arts in Europe up until the time of Doctor Hahnemann. Samuel was a keen student of Hippocrates and integrated many of his teachings into the greater body of Homœopathy. In many ways Hahnemann was the “second Hippocrates” as he made the most significant contribution to Western medicine since 500 BC Homœopathy is the Medicine of the Future and this school of “energy healing” is still far ahead of its time. One day Samuel Hahnemann will be recognized as the Founder of truly modern medicine and take his rightful place next to Hippocrates in the history of medicine.

Our study continues with a detailed review of Samuel Hahnemann’s medical practice from his first works in the 1790s to his final cases in Paris in 1843. This assessment draws heavily on material found in the six editions of the Organon, autobiographies, letters and the Founder’s German and French casebooks. This material provides an understanding of the evolution of Hahnemann’s philosophy and clinical methods and removes many misunderstandings about the nature of his work in different periods.

There are many different schools of Homœopathy that claim they are practicing the teachings of Samuel Hahnemann. Some practice pathological prescribing using tinctures, low potencies and alternations or a series of remedies at short intervals. Others rely exclusively on subjective general symptoms, use a single remedy in very high potencies and wait long periods of time. Some speak in terms of treating diseases while others speak of treating the patient not the disease. Some say that causation does not matter as all one needs is the totality of the symptoms while others say the true cause is the chronic miasms which must be removed. Some only use the C potency in the dry dose while others only use the LM potency in medicinal solution. Some persons feel that the way they practice is the only “pure Homœopathy” and what others are doing is “wrong”. This, of course, leads to endless debates and arguments that do little to resolve conflicts or further the cause of Homœopathy.

In truth all these methods have their origin in the teachings of Samuel Hahnemann but from different epochs surrounding the six editions of the Organon. Some practices reflect the philosophy of the 1st through 3rd Organon while others are based on the 4th, 5th or 6th editions. They are all valid in their own paradigms yet none of them stands in isolation from the others as an absolute. Together they represent a vast amount of experience spread out over nearly half a century. In Hahnemann’s advanced teachings all of these methods may be useful but one must know when one or the other is the most appropriate. This is the key to what Hahnemann called the middle path.

One case may require a low potency while another might need higher potencies, or perhaps a patient needs to work through several potencies from low to high. One patient may need an alternation or series of remedies while another may only need one single remedy to complete the cure. One person might need a daily or alternate day dose while another only needs the remedy very infrequently. In one case the totality of the symptoms may be sufficient while in another case knowledge of causation or miasms might make the difference between success and failure. One patient may do better on the C potency while another may do better on the LM potency. Another patient may need both the C and LM potency but at different times. The true healing artist must act according to the time and circumstances not by a preconceived notion that one method suits all patients at all times regardless of the situation. Volume I — History and Philosophy was written with the aim of providing practitioners with the flexibility necessary to respond to a wide variety of clinical situations.


Part 1: The Foundation provides a review of medical history and continues with a study of Hahnemann’s life and works.

  • Chapter 1: Medical History and Homœopathy describes medical history from the Homœopathic point of view and shows how the teachings of Pythagoras, Hippocrates and Paracelsus set the stage for Hahnemann’s revelations. It also looks at the practice of medicine during Samuel Hahnemann’s time so that it becomes easier to understand the environment in which the Founder lived and practiced.
  • Chapter 2: Asclepius in the Balance covers the life and early works of Hahnemann from his birth in 1755 to the 1820s. This section explains the teachings of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Organon and examines Hahnemann’s German casebook D22 (1821). This offers an essential glimpse into the Founder’s early years making it easier to understand the depth of Hahnemann’s later teachings.
  • Chapter 3: The Watershed Years (1828–1830) is a chronicle of the years during which Homœopathy reached full maturity and Hahnemann introduced his teachings on constitution, temperament, heredity, the vital force and the chronic miasms in The Chronic Diseases. It also evaluates the methods of the 4th Organon (1829), which teaches the most evolved version of the single dose wait and watch method. These are the methods used by a majority of contemporary homœopaths.
  • Chapter 4: The Homœopathy of the 1830s assesses the era of the 5th Organon and its innovations. In this edition Hahnemann introduced the “middle path” which teaches the proper time to use the single remedy wait and watch method and when to repeat the remedy at suitable intervals to speed the cure in slow-moving cases. Hahnemann also introduced the use of higher potencies beyond 30C up to 300C. Around the same time,the early experiments of General Korsakov expanded the range of centesimal potencies up to 1000 and 1500. The chapter continues with a commentary on Hahnemann’s advanced views on individual and collective causation and a historical assessment of the development of diseases of civilization. There is a review of Hahnemann’s German casebook D38(1833–1835), which offers insights into his clinical methods around the time of the 5th Organon.
  • Chapter 5: The Early Paris Epoch (1835–1839) covers the era when Samuel met his second wife, Melanie, and moved to Paris. During this time the Founder began to introduce a new series of revisions to the methods he used in his earlier career. This section describes Hahnemann’s early experiments with the medicinal solution and divided doses and explains why he moved away from using dry pellets as a delivery system. It contains information from Hahnemann’s Paris casebook DF-2 (1835 to 1836) which records his earliest use of the medicinal solution with a dilution glass. This section also presents the information found in the 1837 Preface to The Chronic Diseases and offers a detailed case history from the Paris casebook (DF-5) covering the same year.
  • Chapter 6: Hering’s Contributions describes the innovative methods which Constantine Hering introduced during the 1830s. This includes the introduction of the nosodes and presents a unique case history in which Hahnemann used an auto-nosode of phthisis (TB) on one of his patients. It also reviews the works of Johann Wilhelm Lux and his teachings on Isopathy.
  • Chapter 7: Jenichen’s High Potencies presents the life and work of Caspar Julius Jenichen, and his contribution to the development of high potencies. There is a analysis of his pharmaceutical methods including the testimony of Bonninghausen and Hering who used his remedies in their practice.
  • Chapter 8: The Homœopathy of the 1840s investigates the period in which Hahnemann wrote the 6th Organon and introduced the LM potency. It provides a detailed assessment of the nature of the Paris casebooks and the information which they contain. It ends with an extensive statistical study of Hahnemann’s use of the 50 millesimal potencies based the author’s research and the works of Ubiratan and Maristela Adler.
  • Chapter 9: Hahnemann’s Case Management in Paris provides an evaluation of a LM case history sent by Hahnemann to Baron von Boenninghausen in 1843. It also reviews a letter from Dr. Croserio which answers Boenninghausen’s questions about how the Founder used these remedies. It ends with a series of case histories from the Paris casebooks that gives an insight into how Hahnemann treated his patients in his last years.
  • Chapter 10: The Case of Robert Everest is an extensive study of a case history from the Paris casebook DF-14 that shows how Hahnemann used the C and LM potency in 1843. It reveals an in-depth view of the Founder’s posology methods and case management strategies in his final months of practice.
  • Chapter 11: The Aftermath tells of the passing of Samuel Hahnemann, and describes the life and career of Melanie Hahnemann after his death. It traces the history of the manuscript of the 6th Organon until its publication in 1921. The last section discusses some of the common misunderstandings about the Founder’s final clinical practice.
  • Chapter 12: History of Mechanized Potentizers is a study of the machines that have been used to make homœopathic remedies from the late 1830’s up to the present day. The original production of high potencies by hand proved to be a laborious process. For this reason, pioneers such as Drs Mure, Dunham, Finke, Swan, Skinner, Kent and others developed potentizers that worked on a variety of principles. The study brings us up to date with an examination of the modern potentizers now used by pharmacies around the world.

Part 2: Homœopathic Philosophy discusses Hahnemann’s biomedical model, the laws of natural healing and acute, half-acute and chronic diseases.

  • Chapter 13: The Homœopathic Decalogue presents ten of the most important principles of Hahnemann’s teachings. These key elements include dynamism, treatment by similars, proven medicines, the single remedy, the minimal dose, potentised remedies, individual and collective disease, suppression and the laws of natural healing.
  • Chapter 14: Hahnemann’s Biomedical Model reviews the vitalist paradigm and the role played by the vital force in maintaining health and producing the symptoms of disease. This section also discusses Hahnemann’s action-reaction model and explains how homœopathic remedies cure.
  • Chapter 15: The Laws of Natural Healing studies susceptibility, how dissimilar diseases form layers and complex diseases, and assesses the nature of various primary and secondary actions. It also contains a detailed study of the law of cure as presented in Hering’s Preface to the 1845 American edition of The Chronic Diseases and other writings. This is one of the most comprehensive commentaries on the direction of cure ever written.
  • Chapter 16: Acute, Half-Acute and Chronic Diseases contains a discourse on the nature of acute diseases, acute miasms, half-acute diseases, chronic conditions caused by maintaining causes and chronic miasms.
  • Chapter 17: The Prevention and Treatment of Epidemics explains the method known as Homœoprophylaxis, which is the prevention of infectious diseases with homœopathic remedies.

Table of Contents





Part 1 : The Foundation

Chapter 1 : Medical History and Homœopathy

The Early Period

Ancient Medicine

The Asclepiads

Pythagoras and the Greek Renaissance

Music of the Spheres

The Hippocratic School

Hippocratic Temperaments

Moderation in All Things

The Atomists

Greco-Roman Medicine

Galenic Medicine

Rise of Christianity and Islam

Western European Medicine

The Inquisition

The Renaissance

Paracelsus (1493–1541)

The New Medicine

The Scientific Revolution

The Age of Reason

Birth of a New Medicine

Medicine of the 19th Century

Miasms and Similars


Pasteur, Bechamp and Bernarde

Medicine of the 20th Century

Medicina Futura

Modern Medicine

Chapter 2 : Asclepius in the Balance

Samuel Hahnemann’s Early Medical Practice

Birth (1755)

Childhood in Meissen

University Days (1775)


Hahnemann’s Early Practice of Medicine (1780)

Samuel Renounces Orthodox Medicine (c. 1783–1784)

Cullen’s Materia Medica and the First Proving (1790)

Hahnemann and Mental Health (1792–1793)

Essay on a New Principle (1796)

In Search of the Minimal Dose

Medicine of Experience (1805)

Fragmenta de Viribus Medicamentorum (1805)

What are Poisons? What are Medicines? (1806)

The 1st Organon (1810)

Materia Medica Pura (1811–1821)

The Early Group Anamnesis (1813)

Sources of the Common Materia Medica (1817)

The Introduction of Sulphur to the Materia Medica (1818)

The 2nd Organon (1819) and 3rd Organon (1824)

Hahnemann’s German Casebook D22 (1821)

The Foundation of a New Medicine

Chapter 3 : The Watershed Years (1828–1830)

The 1st Chronic Diseases and 4th Organon

The Introduction of Homœopathic Pathology

The Itch Disease in Early Homœopathy

New Remedies

The Origin of Psora

Epidemiology in Homœopathy

The Great Debate

The Treatment of Chronic Diseases

The Medicinal Solution in The Chronic Diseases

The Vital Force in the 4th Organon (1829)

Exciting and Fundamental Causes

The Wait and Watch Method of the 4th Organon

Posology Methods and Delivery Systems

Hahnemann Restricts Potency to 30C

The Limit Maker

Chapter 4 : The Homœopathy of the 1830s

Korsakov’s High Potencies

Information Technology

Medicating the Globules

Mode of Propagation and the High Potencies

The Single Vial Method

Transmission of Medicinal Powers and Grafting

Experience with the High Potencies

Overcoming the Obstacles to the Cure

New Repertories

The Double Remedy Experiments of 1833

Aegidi’s Method

Hahnemann Changes His Position

Double Remedies Rejected in the 5th Organon

The Innovations of the 5th Organon (1833)

The Vital Force in the 5th Edition

Hahnemann Embraces the High Potencies

The Centesimal Notations

Causation in the Introduction of the Organon


Farming and Animal Husbandry

The Age of Exploration

The Industrial Revolution

The Scientific Revolution

The Military-Industrial Complex

The Medical-Industrial Complex

Environmental Degradation and Climate Change

The Medicine of the Future

New Case Management Procedures

The Middle Path

Alternations and Intercurrents

Hahnemann’s German Casebook D38 (1833–1835)

Chapter 5 : The Early Paris Epoch (1835–1839)

A New Paradigm

The Marriage of Melanie and Samuel Hahnemann

The Founder’s Health in Paris

The Medicinal Solution in DF-2 (1835–1836)

The Paris Edition of The Chronic Diseases (1837)

Hahnemann’s Use of the High Potencies

Preparation of the Medicinal Solution

The Size of the Dose

Succussing the Second Bottle

Dropper Bottle Solutions

Case Management in the 5th Organon

Is Aggravation Necessary?

How to Prevent Aggravation

How to Manage Aggravations

A Case from Hahnemann’s Journal (1837–1838)

Sulphur, Fire and Brimstone

Subsequent Prescriptions

Hahnemann Muddles his Case

Regularizing the Vital Force

The Final Consultation

Sulphur and Hepar Sulphuris Calcareum in the Paris Casebooks

The Limit Breaker

Chapter 6 : Hering’s Contributions

Miasms and Nosodes

Hering’s Revolutionary Methods

Nosodes as a Genus Family

Characteristics of the Nosode Genus

Never Well Since Typhoid


Johann Wilhelm Lux and Isopathy

Hahnemann and the Auto-nosodes

Chapter 7 : Jenichen’s High Potencies

Every Year Higher

Master of Horse

Rentsch and the British Journal of Homœopathy

Hering and the German Sources

Boenninghausen on Jenichen’s High Potencies

Jenichen’s Legacy

Chapter 8 : The Homœopathy of the 1840s

The 6th Organon

New Pharmaceutical Experiments

Hahnemann Communicates his Discoveries

Hahnemann as a Chemist

Weights and Measures

Sundries and Pharmaceutical Preparations

The Paris Casebooks

The Records of Hahnemann’s Cases

Samuel and Melanie’s Handwriting

The Prescriptions



Repertorization and Rubrics

Collections of Rubrics in Cases

Collections of Rubric Examples

Hahnemann’s Materia Medica

Hahnemann’s Remedy Chests

Roman Centesimal Notations

Arabic Centesimal Notations

Mysterious Notations

Alternations, Intercurrents and Tandem Remedies

LM Prescriptions in the Paris Casebooks

Criteria for Fifty-Millesimal Notations

The Works of Ubiratan and Maristela Adler

The Search for Early LM Prescriptions

Adlers’ Proposed LM Case in 1837

Adlers’ Proposed LM Cases in 1838

Adlers’ Proposed LM Cases in 1839

LM Prescriptions in 1840

The Final Refinements

Chapter 9 : Hahnemann’s Case Management in Paris

Following in the Founder’s Footsteps

Boenninghausen’s and Lehrmann’s 200th

Letter Case from Hahnemann’s 1843 Journals

Doctor Croserio’s Letter

Confronting the Miasms

Anti-Miasmic and Chronic Remedies (Madame Bonnar)

Chief Remedy and Chronic Intercurrent (Baby Victoria)

Acute Intercurrents for Crisis (Augustine Regnard)

Alternations (Madame Gardy)

Acute Disorders During Chronic Treatment (Adele Sanson)

Removing Aggravations and Accessory Symptoms (Tony Conte)

Calming Crisis During Chronic Treatment (Madame Chagnon)

Hahnemann’s Anti-Miasmatic Remedies

Chapter 10 : The Case of Robert Everest

Hahnemann’s Final Cases


The First Prescription, Sulphur 0/1

Hahnemann Raises the Potency to 0/2

The Use of Placebo

Hahnemann Raises the Potency to 0/3

Waiting and Watching

Repertory Insertions and Sulphur 0/4

New Causation and Symptoms — Cannabis

A Series of Placebos

Thuja by Olfaction followed by Placebos


Mercury by Olfaction

Thuja 0/1 in Medicinal Solution

Thuja 0/2 Followed by Placebos

Mercury 0/1 Followed by Placebos

A Synthetic Prescription

Placebo and a NB Symptom

The Return to Sulphur

Aurum 30C Followed by Placebo

The Patient Leaves for the West Indies with Nux Vomica

Chapter 11 : The Aftermath

The End of the Story

Samuel’s Passing

Melanie Hahnemann and the 6th Organon

Melanie and the Boenninghausen Family

Further Negotiations

Melanie’s Contribution

The Disinterment and Reburial of Samuel and Melanie Hahnemann

The 6th Organon Sees the Light of Day

Clarifying Hahnemann’s Legacy

Deciphering the Paris Casebooks

Posology Questions

The Size of the Dose

Integrating the 4th, 5th and 6th Organon

Chapter 12 : History of Mechanized Potentizers

Dr Mure’s Potentizing Machines

Early Works and Philosophy

Mure’s Potentizers

The Paris Institute

Mission in Brazil

Sojourn in Africa

Dunham’s Oil Mill Potentizer

The Power of Succussions

Fincke’s Fluxion Potentizer

A New Method

The Ebullient Fluxion Potentizer

The Scaturient Fluxion Potentizer

Description of the Scaturient Fluxion Potentizer

Fincke’s Fluxion Process

Boericke’s Potentizer

Boericke and Tafel Inc.

Swan’s Fluxion Potentizer

Nosodes and Miasms

Swan’s Potencies

Lesser-Known Remedies and Imponderabilia

Skinner’s Centesimal Fluxion Attenuator

Dilutions not Succussions

Skinner’s Potentization Proccess

Boericke and Tafel’s Skinner Machines

The Burdick Potentizer

Centesimal  Fluxion Remedies

Santee’s Gravity Potentizer

Santee and Nash’s High Potencies

Kent’s Potentizer

Dilutions and Succussions

H. C. Allen’s Continuous Fluxion Potentizer

Ultra-High Potencies

The Quinn Potentizer

Hahnemann Laboratories

The Labotics K-Tronic Potentizer

Fully Automated Systems

The Pinkus Potentizer

Ainsworth Pharmacy

The Helios K-Potentizer

Helios Homœopathic Pharmacy

The Remedia Potentizers

Salvator Pharmacy and Remedia Homœopathy

Homœopathic Pharmaceutical Standards

How Are Your Remedies Made?

Part 2 : Homœopathic Philosophy

Chapter 13 : The Homœopathic Decalogue

The Ten Vital Principles

The Key Elements

1. Dynamism

Pathogen, Ponos and Pathos

2. Similia Similibus Curentur

3. Proven Remedies

4. The Single Remedy

5. The Minimal Dose

The Kentian Dose

6. The Potentized Remedies

7. Individualized Disease Treatment

8. Treatment of Collective Diseases and Chronic Miasms

9. The Suppression Syndrome

10. The Laws of Natural Healing

Chapter 14 : Hahnemann’s Biomedical Model

The Lebenskraft, the Vigor Vitae

The Vitalist Paradigm

Seven Steps to Cure

The Cardinal Principles

The Dynamis

The Vital Principle

In Search of the Vital Force

The Consciousness Principle

The Functions of the Vital Force

Confusion Comes from Misunderstanding

Disease is a Mistunement of the Vital Force

Similia Similibus Curentur

The Nervous System and the Vital Force

The Remedy Replaces the Natural Disease (Primary Action)

The Action-Reaction Model (Secondary Curative Action)

The Return of Health and Vitality

The Homœopathic Way

Chapter 15 : The Laws of Natural Healing

Similar and Dissimilar Diseases


Dissimilar Diseases

Strong Repels the Weak

New Suspends the Old

Complex Disease

The Layers in Homœopathy

Similar Diseases Cure

Primary and Secondary Action

Primary and Curative Effect

Initial Action

The Secondary Action

Examples of Opposing Secondary Actions

Curative Secondary Action

When Palliation is Useful

Completing the Cure

How Painkillers, Sedatives and Tranquilizers Work

Hahnemann’s Summation

Hahnemann’s Direction of Cure and Hering’s Laws

How Homœopathic Healing Takes Place

Hahnemann on the Direction of Cure

Hering’s Observations

Misunderstanding the Direction of Cure

Kent on Hering’s Laws

Chapter 16 : Acute, Half-acute and Chronic Disease

The Study of Acute Diseases

Crisis and Acute States

Investigation of Acute Diseases

Individual Acute Diseases

Sporadic Acute Diseases

Epidemic Acute Miasms

The Half-Acute Miasms

Kent on Acute and Chronic Diseases

When Not to Use the Constitutional Remedy

An Acute Case History

The Chronic Diseases in the Organon

Aphorism 74

Iatrogenic Diseases

The Vigor Vitae in Iatrogenic Diseases

Homœopathic Treatment of Side-effects

Man-Made Diseases and the Environment


Pseudo-Chronic Disease States

Degenerative Diseases Not Based on Miasms (§77)

Potentially Avoidable Maintaining Causes

Harmful Food and Drink

Diet and Constitution


Prolonged Deprivation

Unhealthy Living and Working Places

Lack of Exercise and Open Air

Excessive Mental or Bodily Exertions

Constant Mental and Emotional Stress

The Chronic Miasms

Chronic Diseases and Miasms

Venereal Diseases


The Proliferation of Psora

A Kind of Disease

Thoughts on the Miasms

The Relationship of Remedies

Acute and Chronic Medicines

Acute and Chronic Complements

Chapter 17 : The Prevention and Treatment of Epidemics


Infectious Miasms

Collective Diseases

Genus Epidemicus Remedies

Boenninghausen’s Group Anamnesis of Typhoid

Hahnemann on Homœoprophylaxis

Boenninghausen on Homœoprophylaxis


Three Methods of Homœoprophylaxis

Testimony of Experienced Homœopaths

Posology and Case Management

Remedies for Specific Homœoprophylaxis

Administering the Preventative Remedy

A Review of the Signs after Administration

Homœoprophylaxis, The Medical Advance, May, 1904