Volume V : Constitution, Temperament and Maps of Consciousness

Pages: 680 | Chapters: 16

Key Subjects

  • Constitutional medicine
  • Mappa Mundi
  • Four temperaments
  • Jungian psychology
  • Psychological development
  • Mental disorders
  • Interactive case taking

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Volume V : Constitution, Temperament and Maps of Consciousness presents an in-depth study of physical and psychological typology. Part 1 examines the use of the 4 classical temperaments in homoeopathy, with clinical analysis and materia medica studies. Part 2 is a study of the human psyche and its development, from our early ancestors to modern times. It explores a wide range of psychological problems and mental disorders with related remedies and therapeutic hints.

Part 1 : Constitution and Temperament explains the constitutional approach to homoeopathy and introduces the Mappa Mundi, a geometric design which explains the inner relationship of the 5 elements in a concise symbolic form. This information provides a practical guide to temperamental analysis and reveals the inner teachings of the caduceus, the universal symbol of the healing arts. The portraits of the choleric, phlegmatic, sanguine and melancholic temperaments are described with their characteristic mental temperament, physical constitution and predispositions. These studies include a repertorium and materia medica section which analyses remedies suited to each temperament.

Part 2 : Maps of Consciousness  is a guide to the deeper facets of the psyche. A study of classical philosophy and modern psychology are important aspects of Homoeopathy. This section describes the development of philosophy and metaphysics in history, modern psychology, the classification and treatment of mental disorders, Jungian psychology, important archetypes, psychological types, developmental psychology, neural anatomy and complexes. The last chapter explains how to use this information when interviewing patients and the ART method for testing remedies.

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Volume V — Constitution, Temperament and Maps of Consciousness presents a study of the relationship of constitution, temperament and psychology in homœopathic treatment. With the advent of the deciphering of the human genome the innate constitution has become central to our understanding of the predispositions toward certain diseases. It is now proven that the tendency toward many physical and psychological disorders has its roots in the genes. This has led to a revival of the constitutional view in modern medicine. No longer are diseases considered solely the local breakdown of cells in a particular tissue, organ or system. The cause of many chronic disorders is now viewed as a combination of inherited predispositions and their environmental triggers.

Recent scientific studies of human DNA indicate that all human genes can be traced back to one group of hunter-gatherers that left east Africa about 65,000 years ago and passed into Yemen. As the tribe expanded some groups settled down while others travelled the coastline to South Asia, Southeast Asia, Malaysia and Indonesia until Australia was settled around 50,000 years ago. From population centers like India they migrated northwest through Iran and Iraq and the near East to Europe while others spread from Southeast Asia throughout China, Siberia and finally North and South America. During this grand journey the human organism evolved and adapted to a wide variety of climates and food sources. Thus the human constitution has been shaped by a combination of nature (constitution) and nurture (environment) since the dawn of history.

Since the beginning of modern times there has been a great increase of “diseases of civilization” like obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, high blood pressure, heart disease, cancer, etc. Hahnemann spoke about this trend in the Introduction to the 5th and 6th Organon. Degenerative diseases once seen exclusively in old people are now found in younger persons and even children. The decline of the human constitution is so severe that for the first time health officials are worried that the younger generation may not live as long as the older. This change in the human constitution is caused by a combination of constitutional predispositions, miasms, environmental degradation, chemical pollution, and improper diet, lack of exercise, stress and suppressive medical treatment. This situation has led to the overburdening of medical systems and a spiral of ever increasing cost.

Homœopathy can play an essential role in reforming the medical system and reversing these negative trends in both treatment efficacy and costs. Since its earliest days Homœopathy has looked upon the human being as a unity in which the whole is more than the sum of its parts. Hahnemann wrote that the human organism is a “complete whole, a unity” in which every sensation and power is “intimately associated” with the sensations and functions of “all other parts”. The Founder called the unifying power of the human organism the “vital force”. In this sense, there are no local diseases as all pathogenic processes affect the vital force, and through it the complete mind-body complex.

The classification of constitution and temperament by similar characteristics has played a central role in the development of the medical sciences. Hippocrates used an ancient system of constitution and temperament that is at the very root of Western medicine and psychology. He classified individuals into four archetypal groups and their mixtures based on similar anatomy, physiology, psychology and predispositions to disease. He called the four major constitutions the choleric, phlegmatic, sanguine and melancholic temperaments. Each of these constitutions has a characteristic physical constitution, mental temperament, predispositions, physique, facial features, complexion, sensations, aversions, desires and modalities.

As I deepened my study of Homœopathy I realized that the Hippocratic Canon formed the background of Samuel Hahnemann’s medical view. For this reason, one finds occasional references to the classical temperaments in Hahnemann’s casebooks, The Materia Medica Pura and The Chronic Diseases. This 2500 year old tradition was preserved in Homœopathy as knowledge of classical temperament was taken for granted by the first generation of homœopaths. Constantine Hering presented a study of classical temperament and remedies in his Guiding Symptoms and these characteristics have spread to works like Allen’s Keynotes, etc. James Kent did not approve of Hahnemann’s and Hering’s use of classical temperament, and since that time, interest in this subject has waned. Part 1, Constitution and Temperament, is an attempt to recover these lost gems and return the science of physiognomy to its rightful role in the homœopathic healing arts.

I have come to the conclusion that a study of classical philosophy and modern psychology are an important aspect of practicing Homœopathy. The second part of this volume, Maps of Consciousness, acts as a guide to the deeper aspects of the psyche. The collection of the mental symptoms is not just the recording of lists of unrelated bits of information. Hahnemann used two German words when speaking of the collection of the symptoms, Gesammtheit and Inbegriff. Gesammtheit means the totality in all its aspects and Inbegriff means the essence, inner idea or nature of a phenomenon. The root of Inbegriff is the verb, “begreifen”, which means to touch, handle, comprise, include, comprehend and understand in the sense of coming in contact with something. So the Founder is pointing out that the mere collection of the totality of the symptoms is not complete without comprehending their inner Esse.

One cannot see the mental essence but one can observe the Unconscious through its Gestalt-phenomena, which is comprised of altered states, delusions, dreams, fantasies, attachments, aversions and sensations. These symptoms allow the observer to paint a portrait of the archetypal powers that lie at the core of experience. Psychology helps one to make sense of the apparently senseless by offering insights into the uncontrollable delusions, inexplicable feelings and unusual sensations of our patients. For this reason, and more, we have written an extensive document that reviews the history of philosophy and psychology and their role in Homœopathy. I hope this work will be found useful by the homœopathic community.


Part 1: Constitution and Temperament presents an in-depth study of physical and psychological typology. The text examines the use of the classical four temperaments (choleric, phlegmatic, sanguine and melancholic) in Homœopathy and the materia medica.

  • Chapter 1: Constitutional Medicine starts with an exposition of the teachings of Hippocrates on constitution and temperament and explains the system used by the Greek naturalist to assess the most common genotypes. The text examines the use of the classical four temperaments (choleric, phlegmatic, sanguine and melancholic) in Homœopathy and the materia medica. It reviews statements on the relevance of various constitutions by Hahnemann, Boenninghausen, Hering, Jahr, Kent, Allen, Roberts and Whitmont. It also provides a discussion of aphorism 5 of the Organon and its importance in the study of the whole human being and its relationship to environment.
  • Chapter 2: Mappa Mundi builds on the foundation introduced in Chapter 1. The Mappa Mundi is a geometric design which contains all of the major teachings of Pythagoras and Hippocrates in a concise symbolic form. The image demonstrates the inner relationship between five archetypal symbolic elements, the ether, air, fire, water, and earth. Pythagoras called the five elements the “homœomeries” because all outer and inner phenomena are made up of different combinations of similar components. This section presents a series of ten diagrams that illustrate various aspects of the Mappa Mundi and links this information to clinical analysis.
  • Chapter 3: Temperamental Analysis presents the information necessary to use the Mappa Mundi as a guide in the analysis of the nature and condition of the human mind-body complex. This section offers the practitioner a clinical guide that includes ten areas of examination that assist in the assessment of the constitution and temperament. It includes a series of charts showing the various qualities of the five elements and four humours. It concludes with a study of the archetypal and mythological sources of this information in the form of the Caduceus, the staff of the healing artist.
  • Chapter 4: A Portrait of the Choleric Temperament presents an expanded dissertation on the qualities of this constitution and reviews the relevant remedies from the materia medica.
  • Chapter 5: A Portrait of the Phlegmatic Temperament presents an expanded dissertation on the qualities of this constitution and reviews the relevant remedies from the materia medica.
  • Chapter 6: A Portrait of the Sanguine Temperament presents an expanded dissertation on the qualities of this constitution and reviews the relevant remedies from the materia medica.
  • Chapter 7: A Portrait of the Nervous Melancholic Temperament presents an expanded dissertation on the qualities of this constitution and reviews the relevant remedies from the materia medica.
  • Chapter 8: A Comparative of the Four Temperaments presents a comparative study of the four temperaments in various situations such as in their relationships, at home, out shopping, at work, at dinner, etc. The section concludes with a comparative chart that brings together much of the information on the qualities of the four elements and their corresponding temperaments.

Part 2: Maps of Consciousness is a study of psychology from the classical period to the works of Freud, Reich, and Jung. It contains an analysis of a wide range of psychological problems and mental disorders with therapeutic hints.

  • Chapter 9: Psyche and Soma reviews the development of philosophy, psychology and metaphysics in human culture, from our earliest ancestors, through the classical period and up to the philosophy of Hahnemann’s time.
  • Chapter 10: Roots of Western Psychology examines pre-Freudian schools of thought and their influence on early Homœopathy and presents the teachings of Hahnemann, Hering and Kent on homœopathic mind cure. It continues by reviewing the modern works of Breuer, Freud, Reich and Jung.
  • Chapter 11: Classification of Mental Disorders presents the classifications of modern psychiatry and offers a detailed study of the twelve personality disorders, the five neurotic disorders, the four mood affective disorders, the paranoid disorders, schizophrenia, dissociative disorders, multiple personality disorders, gender psychology and psychosexual disorders, suicidal behavior, autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This section includes the classical signs and symptoms of these disorders and offers clinical hints on possible homœopathic remedies.
  • Chapter 12: Jungian Psychology presents an extensive review of the works of Carl Jung and their relevance to Homœopathy. It describes a number of fundamental archetypes and mythologems and discusses Jung’s teachings on the persona, shadow, personal unconscious (anima-animus), collective unconscious and the Self. This chapter includes the teachings of E. Whitmont, M.D. and Jungian psychiatrist, who was the first to integrate the works of Jung with Homœopathy.
  • Chapter 13: Classic and Contemporary Thought examines a number of powerful archetypes that form the foundation of human psychology. It describes Jung’s system of psychological types and the four female and male archetypes. These sections provide therapeutic hints and discuss the relevance of the materia medica to Jung’s classifications.
  • Chapter 14: Orificial Actualizations and Complexes reviews the psychological stages of human development. It discusses the union-separation dilemma, oral actualization, anal actualization, urethral actualization, genital actualization as well as the inferiority complex, the Oedipal complex, the Electra complex and sibling rivalries.
  • Chapter 15: The Voice of the Unconscious studies the symbolic language of the unconscious mind. This section reviews the evolutionary development and neural anatomy of the brain and its role in psychology. It examines important archetypal complexes that affect individuals and society. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the use of delusions, loves and hates as rubrics and a study of dreams.
  • Chapter 16: How to Approach the Patient and Remedy Testing explains  how to apply the principles of biofeedback to case taking as well as remedy and potency testing. Interactive case taking uses the patient’s voice patterns, eye modes, facial expressions, body language and gestures as a means to uncover deeper layers of the symptoms. Autonomic reflex testing (ART) is a system that transforms the traditional physical exam into an interactive examination of the reactions of the vital force to homœopathic remedies and selected potencies. This allows one to find the most suitable remedy and screen out the wrong remedies and potencies that may cause aggravation before they are administered.

Table of Contents



Part 1: Constitution and Temperament

Chapter 1 : Constitutional Medicine

Constitution and Terrain

The Hippocratic Corpus

Definition of Constitution and Temperament

In Search of the Lost Chord


The Four Cardinal Temperaments

The Twelve Mixed Temperaments

Hippocratic Terms in Every Day Life

Constitution and Temperament in Homœopathy

Hahnemann on Constitution and Hereditary Disposition

Temperaments in the Materia Medica Pura

Temperaments in The Chronic Diseases

Confirmations from the Paris Casebooks

Boenninghausen on Constitution and Temperament

Hering on Temperaments

Jahr on Constitution and Temperament

James Kent on Constitution and Temperament

J. H. Allen on Temperament

H. A. Roberts on Temperaments

Whitmont on Temperaments

Constitutional Prescribing

A Review of Aphorisms Five, Six and Seven

Review of Causation

A Review of the Seven Attendant Circumstances

1. The Observable Physical Constitution (The Condition of the Body)

2. The Intellect and Emotional Disposition

3. The Occupation

4. Lifestyle and Habits

5. Social and Domestic Relationships

6. Age

7. Sex and Sexuality

Assessing the Attendant Circumstances and Constitutional Concomitants

Image of a Homœopath

Chapter 2 : Mappa Mundi

The Map of the World

Pneuma and the Four Elements

How the Ancients Viewed Disease

The Three Forces

Hippocratic Physiology

Hippocratic Pathology

The Schematic of the Mappa Mundi

1. Pneuma and the Three Forces

2. The Vertical Line of the Vital Forces

3. The Horizontal Line of the Natural Forces

4. The Cross of the Three Forces and the Five Elements

5. The Basic Elemental Square

6. The Four Elemental Triangles

7. The Eight Regions

8. Creative and Control Cycles

9. The Four Temperamental Squares

10. The Four Pure and Twelve Mixed Temperaments

The Sanguine Temperament and its Mixtures

The Choleric Temperament and its Mixtures

The Melancholic Temperament and its Mixtures

The Phlegmatic Temperament and its Mixtures

Comparative of the Four Pure and Twelve Mixed Temperaments

Chapter 3 : Temperamental Analysis

Understanding the Human Constitution


State of Balance in Relationship to Outer Factors

Balance Based on Internal Equilibrium

The Indications of the Innate Temperament

Superior and Inferior Elements of the Psyche

1. Indications by Looking

2. Touch and the Nature of Tissues

3. The Hair of the Body

4. The Color of the Body

5. Morphology

6. The Reactive Quality of the Organism

Autonomic Types

7. The Functional Types and Diathetic Constitutions

Von Grauvogl’s Constitutions

8. Excreta and Discharges

9. Sleep and Wakefulness

10. Psychic Reactions

Temporary and Acquired Temperaments

The Four Seasons

Heating Agents

Cooling Agents

Moistening Agents

Drying Agents

Sthenic and Asthenic Temperaments

Elements, Time and Progression

The Five-Fold Defense

1. The Electrical Aura

2. The Airy Nervous Response

3. The Fiery Immune System Response

4. The Watery Lymphatic System Response

5. The Earthy Connective Tissue Response

Integration of the Five-Fold Response

On Generation and Corruption

The Galenic Versus Hippocratic Temperaments

The Caduceus and the Five Elements

The Birth of Anubis

Hermes Thrice Great

The Outer Hermes

The Inner Hermes

The Third Eye and the Wings of the Spirit

The Direct Connection

The Seven Centers: 1. Crown Center

2. Third Eye Center

3. Ether Center

4. Air Center

5. Fire Center

6. Water Center

7. Earth Center

The Evolution of the Seven Centers

The Secret Hermes


Chapter 4 : A Portrait of the Choleric Temperament

Constitutional Analysis

Natural Groups

The Earth Element

The Choleric Psyche

The Choleric Constitution


The Choleric Temperament and its Mixtures


Choleric Remedies

Mineral Remedies

Plant Remedies

Animal Remedies

Nosode and Sarcode Remedies

Materia Medica

Choleric Temperament in the Materia Medica

Smaller Remedies for the Bilious Humour

Chapter 5 : A Portrait of the Phlegmatic Temperament

Constitutional Analysis

The Water Element

The Phlegmatic Psyche

The Phlegmatic Constitution


The Phlegmatic Temperament and its Mixtures


Phlegmatic Remedies

Mineral Remedies

Plant Remedies

Animal Remedies

Nosode and Sarcode Remedies

Materia Medica

Phlegmatic Temperament in the Materia Medica

Smaller Remedies for the Phlegmatic Humour

Chapter 6 : A Portrait of the Sanguine Temperament

Constitutional Analysis

The Fire Element

The Sanguine Psyche

The Sanguine Constitution


The Sanguine Temperament and its Mixtures


Sanguine Remedies

Mineral Remedies

Plant Remedies

Animal Remedies

Nosode and Sarcode Remedies

Materia Medica

Sanguine Temperament in the Materia Medica

Smaller Remedies and the Sanguine Humour

Chapter 7 : A Portrait of the Nervous Melancholic Temperament

Constitutional Analysis

The Air Element

The Melancholic Psyche

The Melancholic Constitution


The Nervous Temperament and its Mixtures


Nervous Melancholic Remedies

Mineral Remedies

Plant Remedies

Animal Remedies

Nosode and Sarcode Remedies

Materia Medica

Nervous Temperament in the Materia Medica

Smaller Remedies for the Atrabilious Humour

Chapter 8 : A Comparative of the Four Temperaments

Differential Analysis

Constitutional Typology

Perceptions of Reality






In the Home




At the Party

Out for Dinner

Comparative Chart of the Four Temperaments

Part 2 : Maps of Consciousness

Chapter 9 : Psyche and Soma

History, Philosophy and Psychology


Our Early Ancestors

The Rise of Homo Sapiens

The Cradles of Civilization

The Genesis of European Thought

The Legend of Asclepius

The Dark Age of Greece

The Four Ages of Greek History

The Greek Renaissance

Eleusian Mysteries

Socrates, the Logician

Revolution in Athens

Plato the Idealist

Aristotle the Observer

Alexander the Great

The Turning Point

The Dark Ages

The Renaissance

The Philosophy of Hahnemann’s Time

The Eternal Truths

Chapter 10 : Roots of Western Psychology

Psychology and Psychiatry

Pre-Freudian Roots

The Insane Diathesis

Homœopathic Psychology

Hering’s Cure

Kent on Mind Cure

Josef Breuer (1842–1925)

Sigmund Freud (1856–1939)

Wilhelm Reich (1897–1957)

Carl Jung (1875–1961)

Chapter 11 : Classification of Mental Disorders

Modern Psychology and Psychiatry


The Twelve Personality Disorders


1. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality

2. Passive-Aggressive Personality

3. Narcissistic Personality

4. Hysterical Personality

5. Cyclothymic Personality

6. Dependent Personality

7. Avoidant Personality

8. Paranoid Personality

9. Antisocial Personality

10. Addictive Personality

11. Borderline Personality

12. Schizoid and Schizoidtypal Personality

The Five Neurotic Disorders


1. Obsessive-Compulsive Neurosis

2. Hysterical Neurosis

3. Hypochondriacal Neurosis

4. Anxiety Neurosis

5. Phobic Neurosis

The Four Major Mood Affective Disorders


1. Depression

2. Mania

3. Manic Depression

4. Melancholia

Psychotic Disorders



Dissociative Disorders and Multiple Personality Disorder

Human Sexuality

Gender Psychology

Psychosexual Disorders

Suicidal Behavior

Self-destructive Tendencies


Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Rubrics and Remedies of ASD

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Disorders That May Accompany ADHD

Rubrics and Remedies of ADHD

Chapter 12 : Jungian Psychology

Journey into the Unconscious

The Structure of the Psyche


Veiling and Projecting

The Collective Unconscious and Archetypes


Meeting the Unconscious

Golden Age of Egypt

Ra and the Creation Myth

Primordial Waters and the Collective Unconscious

Apocalypse Now

The New World Order

The Psychic Nucleus

The Unconscious and the Individual Myth

Theseus and the Labyrinth

The Doctrine of Correspondences

Remedies and Mythologems

Metamorphosis and Stages of Development

Yin and Yang

Components of the Psyche

The Fivefold Vision

1. The Persona

2. The Shadow

A Case of the Persona Versus the Shadow

3. The Anima-Animus Archetypes

The Anima

The Four Stages of the Anima

The Animus

The Four Stages of the Animus

Anima-Animus Relations

Old Before His Time

4. Collective Archetypes

5. The Self


The Psyche and the Materia Medica (Plumbum Study)

Chapter 13 : Classic and Contemporary Thought

Universal Archetypes

The Indus-Saraswati Culture

The Vedic World

Evolution of Creative Thought

Vedic Psychology and Yoga

Brahman and the Gods and Goddesses

The Divine Family

The Tree of Life

Split in the Psyche

The World Beyond

Psyche and Eros

The Principles of Psychic Function


Judgment Day

Psychological Types

Jungian Typology

I. Extroverted Thinking Type

II. Extroverted Feeling Type

III. Extroverted Intuitive Type

IV. Extroverted Sensation Type

I. Introverted Thinking Type

II. Introverted Feeling Type

III. Introverted Intuitive Type

IV. Introverted Sensation Type

Utilizing Typology

The Four Female and Male Archetypes

The Four Female Archetypes

1. The Mother

2. The Daughter/Hetaira

3. The Amazon

4. The Medium/High Priestess

The Mother Complex

The Four Male Archetypes

1. The Father

2. The Son

3. The Hero

4. The Wise Man

The Rutaceae and the Father Complex

Superior and Inferior Types

Chapter 14 : Orificial Actualizations and Complexes

Developmental Psychology

Stages of Ego Development

The Union-Separation Dilemma

Oral Actualization

Anal Actualization

Urethral Actualization

Genital Actualization

Inferiority Complex

Oedipal Complex

Electra Complex

Sibling Rivalries

Calcarea Sulphurica and Sibling Rivalry

Anxiety about Change and Psychic Inertia

Chapter 15 : The Voice of the Unconscious

Neural Anatomy and Complexes

Death and Resurrection

Osiris and a Sycotic Patient

The Ego-Self Estrangement

A Lawyer Who Wished to be a Cartoonist

The Three Modes of Conditioning

The Triune Brain

Reptilian Brain

Mammalian Brain

The Human Brain

The Dionysus Complex

The Aphrodite Complex

The Warrior Complex

The Gilgamesh Complex

Delusions, Love and Hate as Rubrics

Dreams and Archetypes

Chapter 16 : How to Approach the Patient and Remedy Testing

Interactive Case Taking

Who am I?

Seven Levels of Symptoms

The Seven Universal Questions

The Three Eye Modes

The Seven Levels and Five Archetypes of the Psyche in Action

The Persona

The Shadow

The Anima-Animus

The Collective Unconscious

The Self

Completing the Interview

Autonomic Reflex Testing (ART)

Clinical Reflexes and Remedy Testing

Applying the Method in the Clinic

The Pupil Reflex

The Pulse Reflex and the Heart Response

The Respiratory Response

The Percussion Reflex

The Skin Response

Palpation as a Testing Method

Testing Through the Manual Arts

Applied Kinesiology (AK)

Modern Research